As was announced in the lead article of the newspaper Krasnyi Mech (The Red Sword), which was Communist supporting, the Communists saw everything as permissible and believed that blood had to be spilt for the colour of the Red flag to come about.
To us, everything is permitted, for we are the first to raise the sword not to oppress races and reduce them to slavery, but to liberate humanity from its shackles... Blood? Let blood flow like water! Let blood stain forever the black pirate's flag flown by the bourgeoisie, and let our flag be blood-red forever! For only through the death of the old world can we liberate ourselves forever from the return of those jackals! 39
As well as all this torture, Stalin set up "requisitioning detachments" to take the peasants" produce by force. These units were responsible for all kinds of oppression. On 14 February 1922 one inspector wrote:
Abuses of position by the requisitioning detachments, frankly speaking, have now reached unbelievable levels. Systematically, the peasants who are arrested are all locked up in big unheated barns; they are then whipped and threatened with execution. Those who have not filled the whole of their quota are bound and forced to run naked all along the main street of the village and then locked up in another unheated hangar. A great number of women have been beaten until they are unconscious and then thrown naked into holes dug in the snow... 40
Stalin believed that Spain represented opportunities for the USSR and that meddling in that country would bear fruit. For that reason he took sides and supported the Communists in the Spanish Civil War. But with that the terrorism in the USSR overflowed into Spain. One example of the oppression and torture there was the concentration camp that 200 anti-Stalinists were held in at the beginning of 1938. "When the Stalinists decided to open a cheka," one victim recalled;
There was a small cemetery being cleaned out nearby. The Chekists had a diabolical idea: they would leave the cemetery's tombs open, with the skeletons and the decomposing bodies in full view. That's where they locked up the most difficult cases. They had some particularly brutal methods of torture. Many prisoners were hung up by their feet, upside down, for whole days. Others they locked in tiny cupboards with just a tiny air hole near the face to breathe through... One of the worst methods was known as "the drawer"; prisoners were forced to squat in tiny square boxes for several days. Some were kept there unable to move for eight to ten days. 41
In 1931 Pope Pius XI had this to say about the violence Communism had inflicted on the world in the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno:
Communism teaches and seeks two objectives: unrelenting class warfare and the complete eradication of private ownership. Not secretly or by hidden methods does it do this, but publicly, openly, and by employing any means possible, even the most violent. To achieve these objectives there is nothing it is afraid to do, nothing for which it has respect or reverence. When comes to power, it is ferocious in its cruelty and inhumanity. The horrible slaughter and destruction through which it has laid waste vast regions of Eastern Europe and Asia give evidence of this. 42
As the above extract says, Communism's principle aims were a merciless class war and the complete doing away with private property. In other words the aim was to apply the theory of evolution, which Darwin had applied in the biological field, to human societies, and for human beings to be, like wild animals in nature, in conflict, at war.
The disasters brought about by Communism did not stop in Russia. One of the countries worst affected among those to which it spread was China.
The Darwinist Mao Tse-Tung and His Massacres
China's Communist leader Mao had two important guides: one of these, as we touched on earlier, was Darwin, and the other was Stalin. These two lethal names, which met together in Mao's personality, led to great tragedies and left their mark on a long, dark period in Chinese history. Between 6 to 10 million people were directly killed under Mao Tse-Tung's directives, tens of millions of counter-revolutionaries spent great parts of their lives in prison, where 20 million of them died. Between 20 and 40 million people died of starvation in the years 1959-1961, in the period called "The Great Leap Forward," as the dreadful result of Mao's extremist policies. The June 1989 Tienanmen Square massacre (about 1,000 dead) is one example of what China has gone through in its recent history. The killings and genocide directed against the Muslim Turks in Eastern Turkestan are still going on.
Great savagery and inhuman things took place when the Communist revolution happened in China. The people, who were under the effects of a kind of mass hypnotism, supported all kinds of savagery and showed that support by shouting as they watched the killings. The book Le Livre Noir du Communisme ( "The Black Book of Communism"), prepared by a group of historians and teachers, described Communism's savage practices in this way:
The whole people were invited to public trials of "counterrevolutionaries," who almost invariably were condemned to death. Everyone participated in the executions, shouting out "kill, kill" to the Red Guards whose task it was to cut victims into pieces. Sometimes the pieces were cooked and eaten, or force-fed to members of the victim's family who were still alive and looking on. Everyone was then invited to a banquet, where the liver and heart of the former landowner were shared out, and to meetings where the speaker would address rows of severed heads freshly skewered on stakes. This fascination for vengeful cannibalism, which later became common under the Pol Pot regime, echoes a very ancient East Asian archetype that appears often at cataclysmic moments of Chinese history. 43
Pol Pot and The Khmer Rouge
Between 1975 and 1979, during the rule of Pol Pot, two million of Cambodia's population of seven million were killed. When one looks at the killings by Pol Pot, who dreamed of establishing a perfect Communist state, as a percentage of the population, then his killings were much greater than those by Hitler and Stalin. Pol Pot's fundamental target were the sections of society such as doctors, engineers, scientists, in short the country's intellectuals, whom he had killed. The order was even given that "everyone wearing glasses" should be killed. As a result of these inhuman murders, the "killing fields," which lasted for years, emerged. 44
The logic employed by the Khmer Rouge officers to justify their massacres was summed up in these words: "Keeping you is no gain. Losing you is no loss" They killed everyone whom they considered to be, or even suspected of being, useless or harmful. At least one member of every family lost his life in these massacres.
Pol Pot, who counted human life as nothing, believed that the family stood in the way of his radical vision of socialism. He tried to do away with the idea of the family by splitting families up and obliging human beings to live in communal places. The same policy had been implemented by Stalin in Russia. First the peasants' lands were taken from them, then small parcels of land given back, in areas deliberately scattered and far removed from one another.
The result of this was that in order for a family to work their fields which consisted of tiny parcels of land they would have to live separate from one another.
The Bitter Toll of Communist Savagery
Similar examples of savagery were experienced in every country Communism took over, Cambodia, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam and Eastern European and African countries. This bloody toll is set out in The Black Book of Communism as follows:
These crimes tend to fit a recognizable pattern even if the practices vary to some extent by regime. The pattern includes execution by various means, such as firing squads, hanging, drowning, battering, and, in certain cases, gassing, poisoning, or "car accidents"; destruction of the population by starvation, through man-made famine, the withholding of food, or both; deportation, through which death can occur in transit (either through physical exhaustion or through confinement in an enclosed space), at one's place of residence, or through forced labour (exhaustion, illness, hunger, cold). Periods described as times of "civil war" are more complex - it is not always easy to distinguish between events caused by fighting between rulers and rebels and events that can properly be described only as a massacre of the civilian population.
Noneless, we have to start somewhere. The following rough approximation, based on unofficial estimates, gives some sense of the scale and gravity of these crimes:
U.S.S.R.: 20 million deaths
China: 65 million deaths
Vietnam: 1 million deaths
North Korea: 2 million deaths
Cambodia: 2 million deaths
Eastern Europe: 1 million deaths
Latin America: 150,000 deaths
Africa: 1.7 million deaths
Afghanistan: 1.5 million deaths
The international Communist movement and Communist parties not in power: about 10,000 deaths
The total approaches 100 million people killed. 45
All these different Communist regimes and organisations shared one common psychology: all human feelings such as pity, justice, and compassion and conscientiousness had been completely lost. All of a sudden human societies had become fields of war and massacre wild animals tried to live and find food. In the same way as a wild animal fights with other members of its own species over food and territory, so these people behaved like "animals" in the same way. Because the birth of Darwin had taught them that they were basically animals, and as animals fight for survival, so they would have to behave in the same way.
These inhuman movements thought that they had won respectability by wearing a false scientific mask. The only reason the Bolshevik leaders were able to talk so boldly and openly of aggression, terrorism, and massacre was the approval they got from Darwin's theory of evolution. In his book Evolution for Naturalists, P. J. Darlington admits, as an evolutionist, that savagery is a natural result of the theory of evolution and that this behaviour is even justified:
The first point is that selfishness and violent are inherent in us, inherited from our remotest animal ancestors... Violence is, then, natural to man, a product of evolution. 46
As is clear from this evolutionist's admission, it was perfectly natural for Communist ideology, which accepted Darwin's theory of evolution as its guide, to perceive other human beings as animals, treat them in a manner befitting animals, and oppress them. Because he who accepts Communist-Darwinist ideology forgets that he has a Creator, the reason for his being in the world, and that he will have to give an account of what he has done to Him on the Day of Judgement. And as a result of this, like every human being who has no fear of Allah, he comes to be a selfish thing who thinks only of his own interests, a pitiless tyrant, even a wild-eyed killer. Allah reveals these peoples' situation and what will happen to them in this way:
There are only grounds against those who wrong people and act as tyrants in the earth without any right to do so. Such people will have a painful punishment. (Surat ash-Shura: 42)
The Oppression in Eastern Turkestan
No matter how much it is accepted that the dissolution of the Soviet Union spelt the end of Communism as a political regime, Communist ideology and practice still continue. The practices of Russia, where the Red Army mentality still dominates, in Chechnya, and of China in Eastern Turkestan, are the most important indications of this. The Muslim Turks who live today in Eastern Turkestan, are going through a repetition of the experiences of Mao's Red China. Young people are arrested for no reason, sentenced to death on the grounds they are opponents of the regime, and shot, Muslims are prevented from carrying out their group religious duties, their earnings are taken from them by means of ruthless taxes, the people live on the edge of death through the threat of starvation, and the nuclear tests carried out right next to them cause them to catch fatal diseases.
The Muslim Turks of Eastern Turkestan have been living under Chinese hegemony for 250 years. The Chinese gave the name "Sinkiang" or "conquered lands" to Eastern Turkestan, a Muslim land, and defined it as their own territory. After the Communists led by Mao took it over in 1949, the pressure on Eastern Turkestan increased to even higher levels than before. The policy of the Communist regime aimed at the physical destruction of the Muslims, who rejected assimilation. The number of Muslims killed reached terrifying proportions. Between 1949 and 1952, 2,800,000; between 1952 and 1957, 3,509,000; between 1958 and 1960, 6,700,000; between 1961 and 1965, 13,300,000 people were either killed by the Chinese Army or died as a result of the shortages brought about by the regime. Together with the massacres after 1965, the number of Eastern Turkestan people
regime. Together with the massacres after 1965, the number of Eastern Turkestan people killed reached the high figure of 35 million.
As well as wiping out the Muslims since 1949, the regime also systematically moved Chinese settlers in. The effects of this campaign, which the Chinese government began in 1953, are most thought-provoking. While in 1953, 75% of the population was Muslim and 6% Chinese, by 1982 the figures were 43% Muslim and 40% Chinese. The 1990 census, which revealed that the population figures were now 40% Muslim and 53% Chinese, is most important from the point of view of revealing the scale of the ethnic cleansing.
Those to whom people said, "The people have gathered against you, so fear them." But that merely increased their faith and they said, "Allah is enough for us. He is the Best of Guardians." (Surah Al 'Imran: 173)
Meanwhile, the Chinese administration used the Eastern Turkestan Muslims as experimental animals in their nuclear tests. As a result of the nuclear tests, which first started in the region in 1964, local people have been infected by deadly diseases, and 20,000 handicapped children have been born. It is known that the number of Muslims who have died because of the tests is 210,000. Thousands of people have been crippled, and thousands have fallen prey to such diseases as jaundice and cancer.
Between 1964 and the present, China has exploded some 50 atomic and hydrogen bombs. Swedish experts established that an underground nuclear test in 1984 of a bomb with a force of 150 tons had resulted in earth tremors of a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale.
China's oppression of the Uighur Turks does not stop there. The experiences of February, 1997, during a time when incidents were increasingly flaring up, will serve to sum up the Chinese oppression. According to news reported to the public, on Sept. 4, which happened to be a feast day, Chinese militia forces beat more than 30 women, who had gathered in a mosque and were reading out from the Qur'an, with iron bars and dragged them to security headquarters. The local residents went to the headquarters and asked for the women to be released. At that point the bodies of three women who had been tortured to death were thrown in front of them. Then clashes began between the people, who rose to the provocation, and the Chinese. Between Sept. 4 and 7, 200 Eastern Turkestan people lost their lives and more than 3,500 Uighur Turks were locked up in camps. On the morning of Sept. 8, people were prevented by the security forces from offering holiday prayers in the mosques where they had gathered. Following this the clashes flared up again, and as a result the number of detained, which had been 58,000 between April and December 1996, went past 70,000. As many as 100 young people were shot in public squares, and 5,000 Uighur Turks were stripped naked and publicly exhibited in groups of 50.
The example of Eastern Turkestan is just one of the sufferings in the 20th century. In every corner of the world in the 20th century people of different religions, races, or ideologies killed and exterminated each other. It is no coincidence that behind all the ideologies which did these killings Darwin's world view should emerge. Because with his theory Darwin made it easy for people to kill each other without having any pangs of conscience and thus provided a supposed legitimacy for the commission of murder.
The Never-Ending Oppression in Chechnya
The Russian occupation of Chechnya in 1991, despite being thrown back by the late Dzhokar Dudayev, turned into a genuine war on Dec. 11, 1994, following serious trouble in November that same year. While more than 100,000 Chechens lost their lives in that war, tens of thousands were forced to migrate. Chechnya lost hundreds of historical and economic resources in the war. When Russia announced that Chechnya was an "internal matter," no protest came from the outside world. Tons of bombs fell on every square metre in Chechnya. A genocide was carried out, the like of which has never been seen in the history of the world, with chemical weapons, the use of which was forbidden ant it still continues today. But despite all the difficulties, in August 1996 the Russians had to admit defeat at the hands of the Chechens, who were completely undaunted and fought for their own land with all the means at their disposal.
Russia, which had to accept Chechnya as a separate state in agreements signed at the highest levels in August 1996 and May 1997, seemed to have accepted this situation. Whereas in October 1997 the Russians entered Chechen territory and began to kill, not sparing women, children, and the elderly. Civilian targets came under non-stop bombardment for months. In order to break the popular resistance, hospitals, maternity wards, markets, and refugee convoys were especially chosen as targets. At the last it was established that the Russians used chemical bombs and scud and napalm missiles against the Chechens. Alongside this, the Russians put poison into the River Argun, used by many Chechen villages. While the great majority of the women and children who drank the poisoned water died, hundreds waited for death at the doors of the hospitals. Because the river water had been poisoned the civilian population who were unable to find water for drinking and other purposes went through very difficult times.
The situation of the refugees was also worrying. Studies carried out in refugee areas showed that human rights infringements reached enormous proportions. Some 250,000 Chechen refugees who fled from the war are under protection in Ingushetya, the rest in neighbouring regions. It has been announced that Russia spent 385 million dollars on the operation. The Chechens revealed that between September 1999 and July 25, 2000, 1,460 Chechen soldiers and 45,000 civilians had died. Russia's plan was to wipe out all the Chechen soldiers who had been fighting them by November 2000.
The Spell of Communist Darwinist Ideology is Dispersed
Communism is an ideology which was brought into being by people who lived in the 1800s, and who can be described as "ignorant" from the scientific point of view. One of the most important reasons for the rapid winning of influence over wide sections of the peoples of many country's by this ideology, whose analysis and claims have been proven false many times and which furthermore has clearly brought harm to mankind and not good, is the ignorance of those human beings who accepted this ideology.
After the Industrial Revolution, one part of society's being in terrible poverty, and alongside this, another part's rising to an incomparable level of well being, brought out a tension open to agitation in social groups in most countries. This tension developed in countries such as Russia, still living on the level of an agricultural society, and China. Social groups looking for right and justice followed along behind. But the end result worked against them. They lived under far worse economic conditions than before, on the one hand struggling to avoid dying of hunger, on the other living with the fear and terror of being killed at any moment, torture, exile, and robbery.
It was evident that that an ideology based on lack of religion, which believed that the sole basis for development was conflict, fighting, and war, that human beings are basically animals, based on the deviation that moral values such as family, faithfulness, and closeness are unnecessary and irrelevant, would not bring people peace, security, happiness, and justice. But these social groups lacked the vision and understanding to evaluate and analyse these. They looked at photographs of Marx and Engels and thought them to be most "deep," "incomprehensible," and "knowledgeable" thinkers. They looked at the illusory scientific and deep exterior and the syrupy manners of those who supported them and fell under the spell of Communism and materialism. Whereas today, had they been alive, they would have understood that every Communist leader had a very coarse and primitive understanding and were ignorant people.
None of the people they accepted as leaders behaved in a forward-looking manner, they were only able to bind social groups to them by insults and fear: they were people who adopted violence, savagery, ruthlessness, and murder as methods, and thought in a coarse and primitive way. Today many an "old time" Communist has realised what a great mistake he made in the past and regretted it. Each one has understood that he had blindly followed an unproductive ideal, or rather an empty, loud noise. Others try to show that they have still not given their ideology up in order not to accept the defeat and the truth that the years were wasted and say, "We shall overcome."
A period has begun when science and free knowledge can reach anywhere at any time, when any human being can realise truths and realities much easier than before, and to a greater degree. In such an environment the methods of suggestion, reminiscent of a magic spell, of the Communists, materialists, and Darwinists, their talismanic words and calls to war have now lost their power. Hollow ideologies such as Communism, materialism, and Darwinism, whose spellbinding power can be lifted with a little science and a little thought, are rapidly losing their influence on human beings. As a result of this, lighter, more peaceful and comfortable days await mankind. Most important, the realisation of the deception of Darwinism, with full proof, will bring about the end of these ideologies.
Conclusion: Communism is a Terror Brought About by Lack of Religion
Anyone who considers the massacres, murders, and the suffering deliberately inflicted on human beings by the Communists, Nazis, or colonialists, will wonder how the supporters of these ideas could have distanced themselves so far from common humanity. The sole reason for the savagery and oppression inflicted by these leaders is lack of religion and the fact these people had no fear of Allah. A human being who fears Allah and who has firm faith in the hereafter, will definitely be incapable of carrying out any of the oppression, wrongs, injustice, and murders that we have described. Furthermore, no matter how much he may be encouraged, someone who believes in Allah and the hereafter will never be pulled into following such a deviant ideology.
But people who have no religion and no fear of Allah know no limits. With a bit of encouragement a person who believes that he and other living creatures evolved by coincidence out of non-living matter, who believes that his ancestors were animals, and who accepts that nothing exists apart from the material, can easily carry out any kind of cruelty. At first sight perhaps these people might seem as if they do not hurt anybody: but given the right circumstances they can turn into a killer who carries out massacres, assassins who beat people or starve them just because they do not accept their ideas, people filled with hatred, loathing, and violence. Because the world view and values they believe in necessitate this.
In 1983, Alexander I. Solzhenitsyn, winner of the 1970 Nobel-prize for literature, gave an address in London in which he attempted to explain why so much evil had befallen his people:
Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia: "Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened."
Since then I have spend well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: "Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened." 47
This identification of Solzhenitsyn's was utterly accurate. Really, the only thing that could drag a society into that much terror, to turn a blind eye to all kinds of oppression, to watch from the sidelines, is the forgetting of Allah. Whereas Allah never forgets and is never mistaken. The ruthless Communist leaders thought that they had set up their own system to rule societies on earth and thought that they possessed a great power and strength. They even held secret meetings, where they whispered to each other of the further oppression they would inflict on people to increase their power and strength. But while they were doing all this, Allah knew of it, and He will answer what they have done. He announces it in the Qur'an:
On the Day Allah raises up all of them together, He will inform them of what they did. Allah has recorded it while they have forgotten it. Allah is a Witness of all things. Do you not see that Allah knows what is in the heavens and on the earth? Three men cannot confer together secretly without Him being the fourth of them, or five without Him being the sixth of them, or fewer than that or more without Him being with them wherever they are. Then He will inform them on the Day of Rising of what they did. Allah has knowledge of all things. (Surat al-Mujadila: 6-7)
Then there are the groups who followed these ruthless leaders, who crawled along behind them. Their situation has been revealed in the Qur'an. It was announced in the verse "Allah does not wrong people in any way;rather it is people who wrong themselves." (Surah Yunus: 44) In other words these people oppressed themselves by forgetting the religion of Allah and following Darwinist leaders. Another holy verse announces that people bring about the evil that happens in the world themselves:
Corruption has appeared in both land and sea because of what people's own hands have brought about so that they may taste something of what they have done so that hopefully they will turn back. (Surat ar-Rum: 41)
The only way to prevent these disasters from bringing harm to mankind again is for people to live with faith in Allah and the hereafter and without forgetting that they will have to account for everything they do. And, in the light of the Qur'an, which Allah sent down for all people, for them to possess the good moral features, such as love, compassion, mercy, and devotion, which are commanded in it.
Anyone who acts rightly, male or female, being a believer, We will give them a good life and We will recompense them according to the best of what they did. (Surat an-Nahl: 97)
1- Robert M. Young, Darwinian Evolution and Human History, Historical Studies on Science and Belief, 1980
2- Alan Woods and Ted Grant, Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London: 1993
3- Alex de Jonge, Stalin and The Shaping of the Soviet Uninon, William Collins Sons & Limited Co., Glasgow, 1987, p. 22
4- K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao's Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977
5- James Reeve Pusey, China and Charles Darwin, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1983
6- Conway Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology and the Social Scene, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959, pp.85-87
7- Conway Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology and the Social Scene, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959, pp.85-87
8- Conway Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology and the Social Scene, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959, pp.85-87
9- Stephen Jay Gould, Ever Since Darwin, W. W. Norton & Company, New York 1992, p. 26
10- Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Foreign Languages Press, Peking 1975, p. 67
11- Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution, London: Chatto & Windus, 1959, pp. 348-9
12- Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Foreign Languages Press, Peking 1975, p. 67
13- Conway Zirkle, Evolution, Marxian Biology and the Social Scene, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959), pp.85-86
14- Tom Bethell, "Burning Darwin to Save Marx", Harper's Magazine, (December 1978), p.37
15- Karl Marx Biyografi (The Biography of Karl Marx), Öncü Yayinevi, p. 368
16- John N. Moore, The Impact of Evolution on the Social Sciences, Impact No. 52, www.icr.org/pubs/imp/imp-052.htm
17- Marshall Hall, Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, Mao et al: The Role of Darwinian Evolutionism in Their Lives, http://www.fixedearth.com/hlsm.html
18- Alan Woods and Ted Grant, Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London:1993
19- Kent Hovind, The False Religion of Evolution, http://www.royalse.com/scroll/evolve/ndxng.html
20- E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin, Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1940, pp. 8.; cited by Paul G. Humber, Stalin's Brutal Faith, Vital articles on Science/Creation October 1987, Impact No. 172
21- E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin, Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1940, pp. 8.; cited by Paul G. Humber, Stalin's Brutal Faith, Vital articles on Science/Creation October 1987, Impact No. 172
22- K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao's Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977
23- Marshall Hall, Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, Mao et al: The Role of Darwinian Evolutionism in Their Lives, http://www.fixedearth.com/hlsm.html
24- Robert Milner, Encyclopaedia of Evolution 1990 p.81
25- Michael Ruse: The Long March of Darwin, New Scientist 103, August 16, 1984: 35; cited in Henry M. Morris, The Long war Against God, Baker Book House, 1989, pp.85-86
26- David Jorafsky, Soviet Marxism and Natural Science, New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p.4
27- Nicolas Werth, "Le Pouvoir soviétique et l'Eglise orthodoxe de la collectivisation à la Constitution de 1936", Revue d'études comparatives Est-Quest nos. 3-4, 1993, pp.41-49 cited by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 172
28- Samuel T. Francis, The Soviet Strategy of Terror, The Heritage Foundation, 1981, p. 46
29- V. I. Lenin; Collected Works, 4th English Edition, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1964, p. 180
30- V. I. Lenin, The Proletarian Revolution and The Renegade Kautsky (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1952, pp. 32-33, 20)
31- V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, Moscow, Volume 35, p. 238
32- V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 24, pp. 38-41, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1964
33- V.I. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, (Complete Collected Works), Moscow, Gos.-izd-vo polit. Lit-ry, 1958-1966, 35: 311, cited by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 59
34- Ann Arbor, Leon Troçki, Terrorism or Communism, University of Michigan Press, 1961, p. 58
35- Protokoly zasedanii VSIK 4-sozyva, Stenograficheskii otchet (Protocols of the sessions of the CEC in the fourth phase: Stenographic account) (Moscow, 1918), p. 250
36- Harrison E. Salisbury, "Reading The Gulag Archipelago is like no other reading experience of our day," Book-of-the-Month Club NEWS, Midsummer, 1974, pp. 4,5
37- Russian Center for the Conservation and Study of Historic Documents, Moscow, 17/84/75/59, cited by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 100
38- Quoted in V.I. Brovkin, Behind the Front Lines of the Civil War: Political Parties and Social Movements in Russia, 1918-1922, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981, p. 353, cited by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 101
39- Krasnyi Mech, no.1 (18 August 1919), p.1 cited by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 102
40- Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 119
41- Quoted in Julian Gorkin, Les Communistes contre la révolution espagnole, Paris: Belfond, 1978, p.181, cited by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 342
42- Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 29
43- Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 470-471
44- Robert Templer, Pol Pot's Legacy of Horror, The Age, April 18, 1998, http://dithpran.org/PolPotegacy.htm
45- Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press, 1999, p. 4
46- P.J. Darlington, Evolution for Naturalists, 1980, s. 243-244
47- Edward E. Ericson, Jr., "Solzhenitsyn - Voice from the Gulag", Eternity, October 1985, pp. 23, 24