The precursor of Darwinist ideas was presented by Greek Milesian philosophers who had no knowledge of the laws of physics, chemistry or biology. One of the most important assertions of these philosophers, among whom were Thales, Anaximander and Empedocles, was that living things (animals, human beings and plants) were generated spontaneously from inanimate elements such as air, fire and water. According to this theory, the first living things came into being suddenly and spontaneously in water, and after a while some creatures left the water and adapted to living on land.

Thales claimed that living things could generate themselves from water.

The first of these Milesian philosophers was Thales. He lived in a coastal city and spent a long time in Egypt, where he was influenced by the importance of the Nile river in the lives of its inhabitants. He became obsessed with the idea that living things could generate themselves from water, a conclusion he had reached by the use of simple logic and inference but with no experiment or scientific observation. Later, other Milesian philosophers established theories on the basis of the same logic.

After Thales the most important thinker was his pupil Anaximander, who contributed two important materialist doctrines to the annals of western thought. The first of these is that the universe has always existed and will continue to exist into eternity. The second is an idea that had begun to take shape in the time of Thales: that living things evolved from one another. Anaximander even wrote a poem called "On Nature," which is the first literary work to contain a theory of evolution. In this poem he wrote that creatures arose from slime that had been dried by the sun. He assumed that the first animals were covered with prickly scales and lived in the seas. As these fish-like creatures evolved, they moved onto land, shed their scaly coverings and eventually became human beings. 1 Philosophy books explain how Anaximander shaped the foundation of the theory of evolution:

We find that Anaximander of Miletus (611-546 B.C.) advanced the traditional evolutionary idea, already quite common in his day, that life first evolved from a type of pre-biotic soup, helped along a bit by the rays of the sun. He believed that the first animals developed from sea slime which had been evaporated by the sun rays. He also believed that men were descended from fish. 2

The imaginary god that Egyptians believed protected the Nile.

We meet an explanation similar to that of Anaximander in Charles Darwin's book The Origin of Species. There is basically no difference between the theory of evolution proposed there (in spite of its pseudo-scientific claims) and the account of the Milesian philosophers who lived in the pagan culture of ancient Greece.

The most important element of Darwin's theory, the concept of "natural selection," also has ancient Greek roots. The thesis that natural selection is due to a struggle for survival among the species is first encountered in the work of the Greek philosopher Heraclitus. According to Heraclitus' thesis, there is a constant struggle among living things. In a sense this is the origin of Darwin's theory of natural selection 2,500 years later.


Empedocles (495-435 BC), who lived later than Thales and Anaximander, believed that everything present on the earth came to be through random intermixtures in varying proportions of water, air, fire and earth. The writer David Skjaerlund, who has investigated the philosophical roots of the theory of evolution in his book Philosophical Origins of Evolution, states that Empedocles had some interesting ideas; he "believed that chance alone was responsible for the entire process and that man had developed from prior plant life." 3 The concept of chance in ancient religions forms a basic belief and is also the most important idol of the religion of Darwinism.

Democritus is another Greek philosopher who contributed to the theory of evolution and to those materialist philosophies that take the theory for their foundation. According to Democritus, the universe is composed of small particles called atoms and apart from matter nothing exists. Atoms have always existed - uncreated and indestructible. Hence, matter has always existed and will continue to exist into eternity.

Democritus rejected any kind of spiritual faith and claimed that spiritual values, even morality, can be reduced to atoms. Thus, Democritus has been called the first true materialist philosopher; to him the universe has no purpose, everything moves according to a blind necessity, and everything came into being spontaneously by itself. One is reminded again of the false gods of modern evolutionists - unconscious atoms.

Democritus, like modern materialists, believed erro-neously that matter is eternal and that nothing exists but matter.

Unconscious atoms composing the universe - the world, the air we breathe, what we eat and drink, our bodies - in short, everything we perceive, are central to the Darwinian theory. It is well known that every living thing, human beings included, is made up of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, calcium, magnesium, iron and other elements. Darwinism claims that these atoms came together randomly by chance. According to this nonsensical claim, the various atoms that were formed by some unknown impulse later came together incidentally to form stars, planets and all heavenly bodies. After a time atoms again came together by chance to form a living cell with a highly complex structure. Then this living cell underwent a process of evolution to form living things with extraordinarily elaborate systems, and finally, human beings with a highly developed consciousness. Moreover, the human being who is totally the result of chance, with the aid of instruments developed by chance (such as the electron microscope), has discovered the atoms from which he is formed! This is passed off as a scientific thesis!

Evolutionists claim that atoms came into being as a result of chance and gave rise to the whole universe. That is, that one group of unconscious atoms formed the stars, the planets and the earth; another group formed living things. Then, another group of unconscious atoms formed the eye, the heart, the nervous system, the brain and the whole perfect anatomical system of a human being. Later, this human became a professor and started to investigate the atoms that created him. It is obvious that such a claim is unconvincing and far removed from intelligent scientific methods. The whole universe and every living thing in it was perfectly created with the sublime knowledge of Allah.

Thus, the theory of evolution accepts as a fact that every atom is a god with creative power and intent. But the atoms that form a conscious, intelligent human being are themselves without consciousness or will. Nevertheless, evolutionists claim that these lifeless atoms came together, created a human being, and later this amalgamation of atoms decided to go to college and have a career. However, every experiment and observation has shown that without conscious organization, matter is never able to organize itself; on the contrary, it advances towards disorder and chaos. For this reason it is obvious that nothing in the universe results from chance but has been brought into existence by a being with consciousness and will, knowledge and intelligence. These are attributes of Allah, Lord of the earth and the heavens.

Along with the aforementioned philosophers, another important contributor to the religion of Darwinism was the Greek philosopher Aristotle. According to Aristotle, species can be arranged in a hierarchy from the simplest to the most complex and aligned in a linear form like steps in a ladder; he called this thesis the Scala Naturae. This idea of Aristotle would deeply influence western thought until the 18th century and was later to become the origin of belief in the Great Chain of Being, which, in turn, became the theory of evolution.


1- bio106/earlymod.htm

2- Number2/Darwin2Html.htm

3- X0742_Philosophical_origin.html