2. Heat Retention: On land, the temperature can change quickly, and fluctuates over a wide range. Land-dwelling creatures possess a physical mechanism that can withstand such great temperature changes. However, in the sea, the temperature changes slowly and within a narrower range. A living organism with a body system regulated according to the constant temperature of the sea would need to acquire a protective system to ensure minimum harm from the temperature changes on land. It is preposterous to claim that fish acquired such a system by random mutations as soon as they stepped onto land.
Allah created every living (creature) from water. Some of them go on their bellies, some of them on two legs, and some on four. Allah creates whatever He wills. Allah has power over all things.
3. Water: Essential to metabolism, water needs to be used economically due to its relative scarcity on land. For instance, the skin has to be able to permit a certain amount of water loss, while also preventing excessive evaporation. That is why land-dwelling creatures experience thirst, something sea-dwelling creatures do not do. For this reason, the skin of sea-dwelling animals is not suitable for a non-aquatic habitat.
4. Kidneys: Sea-dwelling organisms discharge waste materials, especially ammonia, by means of their aquatic environment. On land, water has to be used economically. This is why these living beings have a kidney system.
Thanks to the kidneys, ammonia is stored by being converted into urea and the minimum amount of water is used during its excretion. In addition, new systems are needed to provide for the kidney's functioning. In short, in order for the passage from water to land to have occurred, living things without a kidney would have had to develop a kidney system all at once.
5. Respiratory system: Fish "breathe" by taking in oxygen dissolved in water, which they pass through their gills. They cannot live more than a few minutes out of water. In order to survive on land, they would have to acquire a perfect lung system all of a sudden.
It is most certainly impossible that all of these dramatic physiological changes could have happened in the same organism at the same time, and all by chance.
1 - Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 184
ERRORS CONCERNING HUMAN INTELLIGENCE FROM THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL
The documentary, Evolution: The Mind's Big Bang, broadcast on The Discovery Channel, set out a number of Darwinist claims on the subject of human intelligence and culture. Considerable space was devoted to the views of such unrepentant Darwinist scientists as Steven Pinker and Richard Dawkins. This paper examines these Darwinist views and sets out the distortions behind them.
The Discovery Channel's Darwinist Preconceptions About Language
Allah brought you out of your mothers wombs knowing nothing at all, and gave you hearing, sight and hearts so that perhaps you would show thanks.
The documentary contains speculation about the origin of language that are based entirely on fantasy and prejudice. The social benefits conferred on man by language are described as the benefits conferred on individuals in the so-called process of evolution. The claim is then made that the socially most powerful might have been selected during the alleged evolutionary process.
The Discovery Channel is unable to offer any scientific proof for this claim, and deals with it in a fairy-tale manner. It takes man's ability to speak, and artificially pastes it onto natural selection, the classical idea at the heart of the theory of evolution. Needless to say, one-sidedly portraying a series of imaginary claims lacking in any scientific foundation as though they were scientific fact is not a scientific approach.
Language, which allows man to think and establish communication with others in a most perfect manner, is a miraculous ability unique to man. All human beings possess language-learning ability from the moment of their birth. A baby anywhere in the world can learn any language spoken anywhere in the world.
Structurally, language rests on complex grammatical and syntactical rules. An utterance consisting of two or three words might appear to be something really rather simple. However, in order for a person to produce it, a great many very complicated processes must be carried out within a very short space of time. Abstract concepts regarding the issue in question are brought to mind, appropriate words are chosen, and then the words are arranged in the right order. All of this must happen for the original thought to be communicated to someone else.
Frank Guenther of Boston University says, "Speech is easily the most complicated motor act humans carry out." 1 Guenther states that during speech the brain controls more than 100 muscles in the face, throat, chest, and abdomen, and emphasizes that all of this happens spontaneously without our needing to think about it. Guenther describes how a five-syllable word, including eleven discrete phonemes, takes most people less than a second to say. Furthermore, we do not have to worry about which muscles to tighten or loosen as we speak. Speech is literally a miracle.
Seeking to offer a Darwinist explanation of the origin of language, The Discovery Channel also deals with gossip in terms of natural selection. After stating that gossip comprises two-thirds of human conversation, the channel says that gossip is actually capital, and that the first person to learn how to do it acquired information that could be negotiated with others, for which reason gossip is an evolutionary benefit.
This claim about gossip is actually nothing more than fantasy, of course. Moreover, it is not even consistent, because gossip is not capital. If it were, then those who gossip most would today be the most respected individuals in society.
1- "Repeat After Me," Discover, November 2002
EVOLUTIONARY TALL TALES FROM THE BBC -II-
The second installment of the documentary, The Human Body, again consisted of evolutionist propaganda devoid of any scientific credibility. The errors in the documentary prepared by BBC are scientifically explained below.
BBC's Tall Tale about "Fish Gills Becoming Human Ears"
The BBC documentary maintained that human beings and fish had a common ancestor, and that traces can still be found in the human body which prove this. According to BBC, the human ear is one example of such a trace, and its origin is to be found in the bones beside the gills in the fish, with which we share (!) a common ancestor.
This BBC claim rests on the theory of "recapitulation," which has long since been discredited in the scientific literature. Since this matter has already been dealt with in the article "Evolutionary Tall Tales from BBC - I," there is no need to repeat it here.
The subject to be considered here is that the human ear possesses such a complex structure that it could never have evolved from a fish bone.
The Human Ear Possesses Irreducible Complexity
The significance of the irreducible complexity possessed by the human ear is this: The human ear is made up of several separate parts all coming together, and we are able to hear as a result of all these parts' working in harmony together. If one of these components is deficient, then we either become deaf or else our sense of hearing suffers serious damage. It is impossible for an organ possessing irreducible complexity to develop by stages, by chance, in a process of evolution. A brief résumé of how hearing actually takes place will enable this fact to be more clearly understood.
As is commonly known, the hearing process begins with vibrations in the air. These vibrations are enhanced in the external ear by about 17 decibels. 1
a) The three separate regions of the ear, the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.
b) In this picture, which shows the middle and inner ear under magnification, can be seen the eardrum, three ossicles and the oval window connecting them. Sound waves striking the eardrum cause these ossicles to vibrate, thus causing the fluid in the next structure along, the cochlea, to move.
c) There are three areas in this cross section of the cochlea. In the middle are the organ of Corti and sound receptors.
d) This magnified diagram shows the tiny hairs in the organ of Corti. It is thanks to these hairs that sound signals reach the brain.
Sound intensified in this way enters the external auditory canal. This is the passageway leading from the external ear to the eardrum. One interesting feature of the auditory canal, which is some three and a half centimeters long, is the wax it constantly secretes. This liquid contains an antiseptic property which keeps bacteria and insects out. Furthermore, the cells on the surface of the auditory canal are aligned in a spiral form directed towards the outside, so that the wax always flows towards the outside of the ear as it is secreted.
The vibrations from an external noise cause the liquid in the inner ear to vibrate. The movement of this liquid sets the tiny hairs on the inner walls of the cochlea, shown in this picture, in motion. The movements of these hairs allow the sound of a violin, a television newsreader's voice or the wailing of a cat in the street to reach the brain in the form of electrical signals. Thanks to these flawless structures we are able to distinguish between millions of different sounds. Science has still not unravelled all the technical details of this system, which has been functioning flawlessly ever since the first human being. Here, we need to see the immaculate art of Allah, our Creator, and give thanks for the blessings He has bestowed upon us.
Sound vibrations that pass down the auditory canal in this way reach the eardrum. This membrane is so sensitive that it can even perceive vibrations on the molecular level. Thanks to the exquisite sensitivity of the eardrum, you can easily hear somebody whispering from yards away. Another extraordinary feature of the eardrum is that after receiving a vibration it returns to its normal state. Calculations have revealed that, after perceiving the tiniest vibrations, the eardrum becomes motionless again within up to four thousandths of a second. If it did not become motionless again so quickly, every sound we hear would echo in our ears.
The eardrum amplifies the vibrations that come to it, and sends them on to the middle ear region. Here, there are three bones in an extremely sensitive equilibrium with each other. These three bones are known as the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup; their function is to amplify the vibrations that reach them from the eardrum.
But the middle ear also possesses a kind of "buffer," to reduce exceedingly high levels of sound. This feature is provided by two of the body's smallest muscles, which control the hammer, anvil, and stirrup bones. These muscles enable exceptionally loud noises to be reduced before they reach the inner ear. Thanks to this mechanism, we hear sounds that are loud enough to shock the system at a reduced volume. These muscles are involuntary, and come into operation automatically.
The middle ear, which possesses such a flawless design, needs to maintain an important equilibrium. The air pressure inside the middle ear has to be the same as that beyond the eardrum-in other words, the same as the surrounding atmospheric air pressure. But this balance has been thought of, and a canal between the middle ear and the outside world allowing an exchange of air has been built in. This canal is the Eustachian tube, a hollow tube running from the inner ear to the oral cavity.
The process whereby these mechanical motions begin to be turned into sound begins in the area known as the inner ear. In the inner ear is the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ filled with liquid. The cochlea is linked to the stirrup bone by a membrane. By this connection, the mechanical vibrations in the middle ear are sent on to the liquid in the cochlea.
The vibrations which reach the liquid in the cochlea set up wave effects in it. The inner walls of the cochlea are lined with small hair-like structures, called stereocilia, which are affected by this wave effect. These tiny hairs move strictly in accordance with the motion of the liquid. If a loud noise is emitted, then more hairs bend in a more powerful way. Every different frequency in the outside world sets up different effects in the hairs.
But what is the meaning of this movement of the hairs? What can the movement of the tiny hairs in the cochlea in the inner ear have to do with listening to a concert of classical music, recognizing a friend's voice, hearing the sound of a car, or distinguishing the millions of other kinds of sounds?
Not even sound systems with the very highest technology can offer us the sound quality we enjoy when listening to a piece of music. The flesh and blood audio system in our ears is flawless. Scientists have still not fully understood this extraordinary system. Believing that such perfection could have come about by chance takes one no further than believing in fairy stories.
The answer is most interesting, and once more reveals the complexity of the design in the ear. Each of the tiny hairs covering the inner walls of the cochlea is actually a mechanism which lies on top of 16,000 cells. When these hairs sense a vibration, they move and push each other, just like dominos. This motion opens channels in the membranes of the cells lying beneath the hairs. And this allows the inflow of ions into the cells. When the hairs move in the opposite direction, these channels close again. Thus, this constant motion of the hairs causes constant changes in the chemical balance within the underlying cells, which in turn enables them to produce electrical signals. These electrical signals are forwarded to the brain by nerves, and the brain then processes them, turning them into sound.
Science has not been able to explain all the technical details of this system. While producing these electrical signals, the cells in the inner ear also manage to transmit the frequencies, strengths, and rhythms coming from the outside. This is such a complicated process that science has so far been unable to determine whether the frequency-distinguishing system takes place in the inner ear or in the brain.
Everything we have examined so far has shown us that the ear possesses an extraordinary design. On closer examination, it becomes evident that this design is irreducibly complex, since, in order for hearing to happen, it is necessary for all the component parts of the auditory system to be present and in complete working order.
Take away any one of these parts-for instance, the hammer bone in the middle ear-or damage its structure, and you will no longer be able to hear anything. In order for you to hear, such different elements as the eardrum, the hammer, anvil, and stirrup bones, the inner ear membrane, the cochlea, the liquid inside the cochlea, the tiny hairs that transmit the vibrations from the liquid to the underlying sensory cells, the sensory cells themselves, the nerve network running from them to the brain, and the hearing center in the brain-all of these parts must exist in complete working order. The system cannot develop "by stages," because the intermediate stages would serve no purpose.
The claim that an organ as complex as the ear should have been constructed in stages by an unconscious process dependent solely on random chance, such as evolution, is both unscientific and irrational. BBC must be aware of this impossibility, since it frequently repeats that this is a miracle that is very difficult to believe, and says: "Evolution shapes our bodies. It is hard to believe that it could bring all this about."
1 - Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Harmony Books, New York, 1994, p. 70